Recently, different microbial ghosts (BGs) were prepared using a protocol based on critical chemical concentrations. In the original protocol, it was given the name “Sponge Like” (SL) protocol. The protocol was reduced to be more reliable and given a name “Sponge Like Reduced Protocol” (SLRP). In this study, using SLRP we succeeded to prepare Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPGs) with correct 3D structure and surface antigens. The study has included oral, S/C, inhalation, I/P and I/M vaccination with KPGs and controlled with challenge test. Results of both the SLRP and the animal experiments prove that we have KPGs able to immunize rats subjected to different routes of administration against viable K. pneumoniae. The evaluation of the immune response, include humoral and cellular immune responses, IFN-γ production, phagocytic activity, NBT reduction activity, serum agglutination titer and bacterial load of various tissues, was performed in BGvaccinated animals subsequently challenged with K. pneumoniae. The results were compared with animals that were not immunized with the KPGs. KPGs not only promoted the generation of high titer antibodies and IFN-γ production but also stimulated a significant increase in phagocytic activity and NBT reduction and a marked decrease in bacterial load of various tissues, indicated that the vaccine was able to induce clearance of intracellular K. pneumoniae. The protective effects of BG vaccination in rats against virulent K. pneumoniae were a result of the induction of a more effective immune response in vaccinated animals than that observed with the non-vaccinated animals. These findings demonstrate the potential of K. pneumoniae ghosts to be used as effective vaccines.
Menisy MM, Hussein A, Abd El-Kader Ghazy A, Sheweita S and Amro Abd A Fattah Amara
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