Study Body Composition of Adolescent Girls

Kankana De*

Vidyasagar University, India

*Corresponding Author:
De Kankana
Vidyasagar University, India
Tel: 9474714273
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: February 01, 2017; Accepted date: February 08, 2017; Published date: February 18, 2017

Citation: De K. Study Body Composition of Adolescent Girls. Cell Mol Med 2017, 3:1.

 
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Abstract

Nutritional status of individuals or populations and measurements of food and nutrient intake and evaluation of nutrition-related health indicators is aspect of study nutritional anthropometry. The use of nutritional assessment has increased importance in recent years because of our greater knowledge of the nutritional status and health. It refers not only to inadequate dietary intake or undernutrition but also to over- nutrition characterized by obesity and its associated co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke, osteoporosis, and some form of cancer as well. Malnutrition is a “pathological state resulting from a relative or absolute deficiency or excess of one or more essential nutrients”. Sample size: For this study 1009 adolescent’s girls are chosen as subjects for this study. Weight is measured in weighing scale and height is measured by anthropometre rod, skinfolds are measured by Harpenden caliper. Results: Fat Mass is 9.35 kg (2.01) mean Fat free Mass is 34.22 kg (4.35). Mean FMI and FFMI of Adolescent girls are 4.08 kg/m2 and 14.98 kg/m2 (1.61). Age wise changes of different variable which significantly vary with age. fat mass increase 4.03 kg from 10 to 19 years.

Keywords

Nutritional anthropometry; White adipose tissue; Brown adipose tissue

Introduction

Nutritional status of individuals or populations and measurements of food and nutrient intake and evaluation of nutrition-related health indicators is aspect of study nutritional anthropometry. The use of nutritional assessment has increased importance in recent years because of our greater knowledge of the nutritional status and health. It refers not only to inadequate dietary intake or undernutrition but also to over- nutrition characterized by obesity and its associated comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension and stroke, osteoporosis, and some form of cancer as well [1].

According to [2], malnutrition is a “pathological state resulting from a relative or absolute deficiency or excess of one or more essential nutrients” [2]. There are two types of adipose tissue (WAT) white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Brown adipose tissue accounts for less than 1% of the adipose mass in human adults. White adipose tissue accounts for less than 1% of the adipose mass in human adults. White adipose tissue is composed of fat cells (adiposities) that generally contain a single, large droplet of lipid primarily in the form of triglycerides. The nucleus of adiposity and cell organelles of cytoplasm (i.e. mitochondria) are compressed to outer edge of cell between the lipid droplet and cell membrane.

Materials and Methods

Sample size: For this study 1009 adolescent’s girls are chosen as subjects for this study.

Weight is measured in weighing scale and height is measured by anthropometre rod, skinfolds are measured by Harpenden caliper.

Percent body fat is increasing with age, it has weak but positive correlation with mean age at Menarche, FM has strong positive correlation with percent body fat, and BMI has strong positive correlation between Fat Mass and Fat Free Mass.

Fat Mass=(FM) (kg)=Body weight(kg)*(Percent body fat/ 100)

Fat free Mass (FFM) (kg)=weight-Fat Mass(kg)

Fat Mass index=(FMI) (kg/m2)=Fat Mass(kg)/(height)m2

Fat free Mass index =fat free Mass (kg)/height (m)2

Results

Fat Mass is 9.35 kg (2.01) mean Fat free Mass is 34.22 kg (4.35). Mean FMI and FFMI of Adolescent girls are 4.08 kg/m2 and 14.98 kg/m2 (1.61). Table 1 represents age wise changes of different variable which significantly vary with age. Fat mass increase 4.03 kg from 10 to 19 years.

Variable 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years 15 years 16 years 17 years 18 years 19 years F
Fat Mass (kg) 7.10 (1.37) 8.48 (1.66) 8.53 (1.31) 8.7 (2.74) 9.4 (1.63) 9.52 (1.59) 9.94 (1.93) 9 (1.81) 10.04 (1.93) 11.13 (2.08) 48.056
Fat Free mass(kg) 31.85 (3.71) 33.27 (4.13) 33.25 (3.41) 33.62 (3.72) 35.01 (4.74) 35.03 (4.94) 34.46 (4.49) 34.61 (4.51) 35.72 (4.35) 35.08 (4.62) 77.77
Fat free Mass Index (kg/m2) 14.83 (1.69) 14.76 (1.74) 14.72 (1.31) 14.67 (1.37) 15.27 (1.74) 15.23 (1.51) 14.96 (1.52) 14.9 (1.09) 15.33 (1.15) 15.04 (1.47) 2.67
Fat Mass Index (kg/m2) 3.29 (0.51) 3.75 (0.6) 3.77 (0.53) 3.81 (0.52) 4.1 (0.662) 4.14 (0.62) 4.28 (0.731) 4.3 (0.66) 4.5 (0.72) 4.76 (0.74) 44.97

Table 1: Age wise change comparison of anthropometric derivation of study adolescence girls.

Longitudinal studies should be carried out to investigate the dynamics of changes in anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic variables which occur during the attainment of menarche. In study on Netherlands by [3] have been reported that PBF. FM<FFM FMI. The pattern and intensity of adiposity is directly reproduced the composition of human body.

The variation in body composition between individuals is large mainly because of variations in adiposity level. Adiposity and body composition between individuals is large, mainly because of variations in adiposity level. Adiposity and Body Composition measures are used to evaluate nutritional status growth development and specific disease state [4].

Cellularity of adipose tissue (hyperplasia) practically doubles with onset of puberty and then plateaus in late adolescence and early adulthood. In adiposities hyperplasia and hypertrophy not only during growth but also on adulthood are significantly higher among post-menarcheal girls compared with premenarcheal girls. Although the terms FFM and lean body mass (LBM) are used interchangeably, there is a difference (Tables 2-4). Unlike FFM, which contains no lipid, the LBM contains a small amount of essential lipids [5].

    Mean Age at Menarche (years) Fat Mass(kg) Fat Free Mass (kg) Percent body fat
Mean Age at Menarche(years) Pearson Correlation 1 0.239** 0.048 0.231**
Sig. (2-tailed)   0 0.15 0
N 896 896 896 896
Fat Mass(kg) Pearson Correlation 0.239** 1 0.537** 0.807**
Sig. (2-tailed) 0   0 0
N 896 1009 1009 1009
Fat Free Mass(kg) Pearson Correlation 0.048 0.537** 1 -0.051
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.15 0   0.105
N 896 1009 1009 1009
percent body fat Pearson Correlation 0.231** 0.807** -0.051 1
Sig. (2-tailed) 0 0 0.105  
N 896 1009 1009 1009

Table 2: Correlations bet(kg), percent body fat between mean age at menarche (years), fat mass(kg), fat free mass.

Variables 10 years 11 years 12 years 13 years 14 years
Percent body fat(post menarcheal) 18.33(2.38) 20.70(2.23) 20.54(2.14) 20.67(2.19) 21.09(2.46)
premenarcheal 18.02(2.14) 19.06(2.52) 19.85(2.13) 20.35(2.67) 22.24(2.85)
Combined 18.17(2.26) 20.21(2.43) 20.54(2.14) 20.63(2.24) 21.18(2.50)
Fat Mass(kg)Post menarcheal 7.67(1.42) 9.05(1.40) 8.84(1.19) 8.91(1.28) 9.49(1.64)
Premenarcheal 6.53(1.050) 7.15(1.46) 7.28 7.54(1.1) 8.29(1.06)
combined 7.10(1.37) 8.48(1.66) 8.53(1.31) 8.74(1.34) 9.40(1.63)
Fat free mass(kg) Post menarcheal 34.03(1.42) 34.54(3.05) 34.21(2.85) 34.19(4.73) 35.53(4.73)
Premenarcheal 29.66(2.74) 30.32(4.72) 29.43(2.77) 29.46(3.11) 29.09(3.17)
combined 31.85(3.71) 33.27(4.10) 33.62(3.72) 33.62(3.72) 35.01(4.12)

Table 3: Age-wise mean and SD of different anthropometric characteristics of adolescent Bengalee girls (Post menarcheal girls,premenarcheal girls, combined (post and premenarcheal).

  t df Sig. (2-tailed) Mean Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference
Lower Upper
FM(kg) 147.326 1008 0 9.35 9.22 9.47661
FFM(kg) 249.739 1008 0 34.22 33.95427 34.49209
FMI(kg/sqm) 170.407 1008 0 4.082 4.03528 4.129299
FFMI(kg/sqm) 295.091 1008 0 14.98 14.885 15.08429

Table 4: Represents relation of fat mas, fat free mass, fat free mass index, fat free mass index.

In epidemiological and clinical studies, it is interesting to understand the relative proportion of FM and FFM and its change in relation to the total body mass because this has medical and nutritional significance. Skin folds (SKF) are indirect measure of the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue. In the early 1900, the thickness of subcutaneous adipose tissue was measured by taking SKF measurements [6].

Conclusion

Percent body fat is increasing with age, it has weak but positive correlation with mean age at Menarche [7], FM has strong positive correlation with percent body fat, and BMI has strong positive correlation between fat mass and fat free mass.

The study represents typical differential rates of positive change in different body composition measures after the attainment of menarche [8].

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