While our previous studies suggest that limiting bleomycin-induced complement activation suppresses TGF-β signaling, the specific hierarchical interactions between TGF-β and complement in lung fibrosis are unclear. Herein, we investigated the mechanisms underlying TGF-β-induced complement activation in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. C57-BL6 mice were given intratracheal instillations of adenoviral vectors overexpressing TGF-β (Ad-TGFβ) or the firefly gene-luciferase (Ad-Luc; control). Two weeks later, mice with fibrotic lungs were instilled RNAi specific to receptors for C3a or C5a -C3ar or C5ar, and sacrificed at day 28. Histopathological analyses revealed that genetic silencing of C3aR or C5ar arrested the progression of TGF-β-induced lung fibrosis, collagen deposition and content (hydroxyproline, Col1a1/2); and significantly suppressed local complement activation. With genetic silencing of either C3aR or C5ar, in Ad-TGFβ-injured lungs: we detected the recovery of Smad7 (TGF-β inhibitor) and diminished local release of DAF (membrane-bound complement inhibitor); in vitro : TGF-β-mediated loss of DAF was prevented. Conversely, blockade of the TGF-β receptor prevented C3a -mediated loss of DAF in both normal primary human alveolar and small airway epithelial cells. Of the 52 miRNAs analyzed as part of the Affymetrix array, normal primary human SAECs exposed to C3a , C5a or TGF-β caused discrete and overlapping miRNA regulation related to epithelial proliferation or apoptosis (miR- 891A, miR-4442, miR-548, miR-4633), cellular contractility (miR-1197) and lung fibrosis (miR-21, miR-200C, miR-31HG, miR-503). Our studies present potential mechanisms by which TGF-β activates complement and promotes lung fibrosis.
Amanda J Fisher, Ellyse Cipolla, Ananya Varre, Hongmei Gu, Elizabeth A Mickler and Ragini Vittal